Toward sustainable batteries based on silicon, sulfur and biomass-derived carbon

2BoSS is a three year project within the framework of the ERA-MIN call, which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.

The project is organized around seven work packages, each of which has clearly defined objectives as well as specific tasks and deliverables in support of the overall project goal:

WP1. Biomass-derived carbon and cathode assembly

A Si-Li2S battery technology

Design a cobalt-free Li2S-based cathode and a graphite-free silicon-based anode.

Li2S carbon composites

Explore organic waste sources and use the composites at the cathode and anode as current collector.

No metal additives

Eliminate the use of metal-based cathodes and metallic current collectors.

WP2. Silicon anode development

Composite development

Produce silicon nanowire-carbon composites based on silicon and waste-sourced carbon.


Increase capacity, improve cycling perfomrance and enhance materials efficiency.


Of the anode material production for pouch cell fabrication.

WP3. Battery assembly and validation


Of electrodes, components and activation processes at full-cell level.


Of main degradation mechanisms for the new 2BoSS cell chemistry.

Assembly & validation

Demonstrate specific energies, power an capacity retention.

WP4. Battery recycling

Easier recycling

Design of a hydrometallurgical route for recycling the  batteries.

No metal additives

Reduction of energy and toxic resources due to the low metal content.

Lixiviation strategies

Properly separate and regenerate the battery key elements

WP5. Life cycle and environmental assessment

Inventory datasets

Develop original inventory datasets of the battery components and improve the Life Cycle Inventory datasets.

Meaningful indicators

Provide key environmental and resource-use performance indicators.

Impact reduction

Minimise social and environmental impacts through more responsible sourcing.

WP6. Communication, Dissemination and Exploitation

Communication & Dissemination

Ensure high visibility, accesibility and promotion of the project and its results.


Organise activities to make use of research results and involve stakeholders.

Business modeling

Exploration of opportunities for business uptake and development of new business practices.

WP7. Project management


Ensure efficienct information transfer and project coordination.


Cover the procedures for data management and set up of legal, financial and contractual aspects.

Data management policy

Develop open research Data Management and IPR management.

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